time arrowWhen giving the coordinates for a location, most people provide the latitude, longitude and perhaps altitude. But there is a fourth dimension often neglected: time. The combination of the physical coordinates with the temporal element creates a concept known as space-time, a background for all events in the universe. “In physics, space-time is the mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum throughout the universe,” Eric Davis, a physicist who works at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin and with the Tau Zero Foundation, told Space.com by email. Davis specializes in faster-than-light space-time and anti-gravity physics, both of which use Albert Einstein’s general relativity theory field equations and quantum field theory, as well as quantum optics, to conduct lab experiments. “Einstein’s special theory of relativity, published in 1905, adapted [German mathematician] Hermann Minkowski’s unified space-and-time model of the universe to show that time should be treated as a physical dimension on par with the three physical dimensions of space — height, width and length — that we experience in our lives,” Davis said.

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